Nothing is known of Hing's Hawaiian art education but there was evidence of his enthusiasm. A Minnesota newspaper, Duluth News Tribune, published an article on October 13, 1912, about how its fifth and sixth grade students studied geography. The fifth graders mailed picture postcards and letters about Duluth to fifth graders in Arizona, Hawaii and other states. Soon, hundreds of cards arrived.
The most prolific correspondents of the Duluth school children seem to be the fifth graders of Hilo. In addition to dozens of cards from Chu Fook Hing, Chu Fook Tang and Dora Conradt, there are many letters careful and conventional in both English and punctuation, and containing such quaint bits of information as “Hilo is a rainy place and is called in sport the ‘Rainy City.’” “The chief industries of Hawaii are sugar-cane and coffee” and “Each gulch has ever-running streams.”Hing’s brother, Tang, was a year older. Hing continued making art in junior high and high school. He was 21 years old when he filled out his military registration card on July 31, 1918. Apparently he did not serve in the military. World War I ended three-and-a half months later. The coming year would be one of new opportunities for some of the Chu children.
Complying with Chinese Exclusion Act regulations, Hing went to the Seattle immigration office and applied for admission; a case file was opened. He answered, in English, questions by the Examining Inspector of the Immigration Service. Below is his October 8, 1919 testimony.
Q. What is your name? A. Chu Fook Hing.
Q. Give me the date of your birth. A. January 17, 1896. [His World War I draft card said 1897.]
Q. You were born where? A. Kaapa, Hawaii.
Q. Your father's name? A. Chu Kin.
Q. What does he do? A. Tailor
Q. Is he Chinese born or Hawaiian? A. Chinese.
Q. Your mother's name? A. Chong Shee.
Q. Where was she born? A. China.
Q. Are you a full blooded Chinese? A. Yes.
Q. Ever been in China? A. No, I have never been there.
Q. What is your father’s financial standing? A. I don’t know.
Q. You have how many brothers and sisters? A. 14.
Q. Has your father had more than one wife? A. Only one.
Q. How many of your brothers and sisters are in the United States? A. One.
Q. What is his name? A. Chu Fook Ng You [sic].
Q. How old is he? A. Between 17 and 18.
Q. When did he come to the mainland? A. Reached Chicago September 8th this year.
Q. How does it come you didn’t come together? A. Couldn’t get a boat; traffic all tied up at San Francisco; he went by way of the Panama Canal and worked his way up through Philadelphia.
Q. What is your brother doing here? A. He is studying automobile business.
Q. And you are going to do what? A. Study art; I am going to study at the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts.
Q. Who will support you? A. My father (presents Certificate of Identity 2012 issued at Honolulu January 12, 1909 to Chu Fook Hing, aged 13, height 4' 4"; scar on first finger of left hand).
Q. It will be necessary for you to bring to this office a photograph for identification purpose. A. Yes.Hing signed the transcript of his testimony and his entry was approved. A black-and-white photograph of him was in his file. Additional information about him was found on the S.S. Princess Victoria passenger list: he had two hundred dollars and was going to meet his younger brother, Ngu, at “1519 Wabash Avenue” in Chicago; “Chicago Academy of Fine Arts” was written after the address; Hing’s height was recorded as “5 feet, 6 inches” and he had a “scar on first finger of left hand”. Hing probably traveled by train to Chicago.
Hing and his brothers have not been found in the 1920 U.S. Federal Census that was conducted in early January. Ngu “took a course in a mechanical school at 1519 South Wabash Avenue”, and his residential address as “1219 S. Wabash.” (He was at the immigration office, on May 18, 1920, applying for a new certificate of identity, a document with a photograph of the applicant and a serial number; this identification document was a another requirement of the Chinese Exclusion Act. Unfortunately, Ngu was not asked for the addresses of his brothers.) The census listed 16 people at 1219 South Wabash including two Chinese restaurant workers but not Ngu, who may have moved there after the census. That location was about a mile north of Chinatown and about a mile south of the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts.
The Chicago Academy of Fine Arts was founded by Carl N. Werntz in 1903, and, in 1916, located at 81 East Madison Street. Art Education in the Public Schools of the United States published a description of the academy, “The school is a private unendowed school supported by tuition fees. The normal course includes charcoal and color work from life, still life, flowers, etc.; principles of design, composition and color, applied design, perspective, construction work, pedagogy, physiology, psychology and history of art.” A Handbook of American Private Schools said the academy “gives instruction in fine, decorative, and normal art and dress design, with emphasis on the vocational and commercial aspects”. The academy was notable for having a number of students who became cartoonists including Walt Disney (1917), Roy Crane (1920), Hal Foster (1921), and C.C. Beck (1928). (This school should not be confused with the Chicago Academy of Fine Art, of 1879, that changed its name to the Art Institute of Chicago in 1892..)
Both the Academy of Fine Arts and the Art Institute had male and female students. Maybe at one of those institutions, Hing met another aspiring artist, Helga Marie Jensen, who had immigrated from Copenhagen, Denmark in 1922. Exactly how and where they met is not known but the mutual attraction was genuine; they married on June 30, 1924 in Grand Rapids, Michigan, where they resided. Coincidentally, they shared the same birth date. She probably met Hing’s brother, Ngu, and sister, Mew Kee. Hing also attended the Art Institute of Chicago. The Chicago Tribune, June 17, 1922, reported that Hing was one of four recipients of the Frederick Magnus Brand Memorial prize for composition. In a 1966 letter to Mrs. Paepcke, asking for her help to exhibit Hing’s paintings at the Art Institute, Helga wrote: “...he has excellent grades from there”. At some point Hing and Helga completed their schooling and sought work. Eventually they decided to look elsewhere to start a new life.
In June 1925 they made their way to San Francisco where they boarded the S.S. President Taft on June 27 and sailed for Hawaii. On July 3 they arrived at Honolulu. Helga was introduced to the rest of the Chu family. Presumably Hing and Helga found work and pursued their artistic endeavors. For some reason, Helga returned to the mainland, through Los Angeles, on May 14, 1926. She stayed until January 6, 1928 when she sailed aboard the S.S. President Madison to Honolulu; she arrived six days later.
Eleven months later on December 21, 1928, Hing and Helga departed on the S.S. Sierra from Honolulu; they arrived in San Francisco on December 27 and continued on to Chicago. According to the 1930 U.S. Federal Census, the couple resided at the Lincoln Park Arms Hotel, located at 2738 Pine Grove Avenue. Hing’s occupation was commercial artist in the printing industry; Helga’s occupation was listed as none. They took in all that Chicago had to offer. In the same 1966 letter, Helga wrote: “Hing has one hundred and 20 beautiful watercolors from Chicago early mornings and evenings. They are from our young days when we walked the shores of the lake....O how we long to see Michigan Ave, the Art Institute and walk the shores as in the old days”. As the nation staggered through the Great Depression, Hing and Helga looked eastward.
In the 1930’s the artistic couple gradually made their way to New York City. A watercolor by Hing titled “Twilight, Central Park, N.Y., At the Moll [sic]” was dated April 26, 1935. The New York Times, July 13, 1936, reported the results of a contest, for art school students, for the best painting of the Tudor City tulip gardens. Hing, a Wood Ridge, New Jersey resident, was one of four artists who received honorable mention.
In November 1936 Hing had two watercolors, “Sunset Over Belmont Harbor” and “Early Morning in November”, exhibited in the Thirty-Fourth Annual Water Color Exhibition at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia. The catalogue listed his address as 136-05 Sanford Avenue, Flushing, New York. The following year Hing was in the Thirty-Fifth Annual Philadelphia Water Color Exhibition with a tempera painting titled, “Devil Dancers; Tibet”. Helga may have referred to it or a similar painting in her 1966 letter: “Hing has beautiful compositions from Shakespears [sic] Tempest and from the Devil Dancers of Tibet”.
Helga departed New York on December 13, 1938 bound for Copenhagen to visit her sister Ester. On May 22, 1939, Helga returned home aboard the S.S. Queen Mary that had sailed from Cherbourg, France and then from Southampton, England. The year 1939 marked a high point in Hing’s artistic career; in Helga’s 1966 letter she wrote: “Hing had 2 watercolors exhibited at Le Salon Paris in the spring of 1939.” Helga returned home to a major event in her neighborhood, the New York World’s Fair that had opened April 30. While the fair celebrated the world of tomorrow, the world was just months away from Germany’s invasion of Poland.
…“One of the mistakes Stan [Lee] made is whenever a penciler finished a job, he’d have him hand it to an inker.” Rice said. “Whichever inker was free. No partnerships developed, and no continuity.” He lived in fear of two inkers on the staff: Hing Chu and Fred Eng. “I used to dread the thought of something falling into Fred’s hands, but we had no choice in the matter.”
Hing was part of a small group of Asian Americans working on comic books. Ben Oda was lettering for Joe Simon and Jack Kirby. Early in his career Bob Fujitani worked at Eisner & Iger, Hillman, and MLJ. Min Matsuda, Irving Watanabe and John Yakata were on the staff at the Biro-Wood shop. Helen Chou, Fred Eng, Morrie Kuramoto, Tsung Li, and Kaem Wong were contributors at various publishers. Syndicated comic strip artist Paul Fung produced art for National Comics’ All Funny Comics among others.
Hing’s comic book work can be viewed here: The Art of Chu F. Hing, Part 1: one-page features; The Art of Chu F. Hing, Part 2: covers and stories for various publishers; The Art of Chu F. Hing, Part 3: Marvel Comics; The Art of Chu F. Hing, Part 4: the Green Turtle, and the Judge and the Jury.
As early as 1944, Hing and Helga were living in Larchmont, New York, a suburb of New York City. As they had done in Chicago, they walked along the shoreline, in this case, of Long Island Sound. Hing commuted to the Funnies Inc. office at 45 West 45th Street, and later to the Empire State Building where Timely was located.
In addition to art and comics, Hing explored other business opportunities. On August 10, 1942, Hing obtained a copyright on his “convertible loose wing & fixed tip vacuum wing, tailless kite, with sound effect”. Apparently, this kite was the first of several projects that Hing and Helga copyrighted. Here are their works and company names from the Catalogue of Copyright Entries.
1. Viking tailless kite; Viking Tailless Kite Company
2. Viking reversible cloth dolls; Viking Tailless Kite & Toy Company
3. Zoo; Viking Toy Company
4. Circus; Viking Toy Company
5. Adventures of Marco Polo
6. Chinese New Year festival
7. Designs for kites
8. Facts not fiction
9. Atomic man; Viking Tailless Kite Company
Some of the copyrighted items were also patented. From 1944 to 1947, they filed five patent applications, and all were granted. The inventors’ names on the documents read: “Hing F. Chu and Helga M. Chu, Larchmont, N.Y.”
2. Alternating Cloth Doll and Method of Constructing Same
3. Tailless Kite
4. One Piece, Third Dimension, Cutout Toy
5. Frame Construction for Kites and Like Toys
On October 9, 1951 Helga returned from trip to Denmark; the air passenger manifest has her address as “Larchmont Acres, Larchmont, N.Y.” (A photograph of a Larchmont Acres apartment complex can be viewed at the Larchmont Historical Society web site.) In the early 1950s Hing’s comic book work ended. Apparently the couple had not been able to get their kites, doll and toys produced. With limited finances, they eventually moved out of New York.
Dear Mrs. Paepcke,
Please listen to my prayer. I am Helga Chu. I would ask you because I know how generous and sympathetic you are. Hing is going blind. The doctors here, Dr. Fouljner and other, have given him 3 more months and the last light will be going out forever.In her letter Helga laments that the local art academy was not interested in exhibiting Hing’s art. She also revealed the tension between them and Hing's family.
We are both very depressed. Hing's family does not care if we live or die. To them I have never been more than a Polack [sic] as his sisters call me or an old hag.Helga still had hope of returning to Chicago and she shared her idea with Mrs. Paepcke.
Hing and I were 69 years of age on January 17. We are receiving Social Security of 180 dollars a month and from July doctors and hospitals are free. We have a life insurance of 2 tousand [sic] dollars...We can borrow 1000 dollars and come to Chicago...I am sure I can find a nice little studio in Chicago and we will live there.How Mrs. Paepcke responded is not known. Helga and Hing remained in Honolulu. Fourteen months later Hing passed away August 1967. Fourteen years later Helga passed away July 1981.
• • •
Special thanks to the Special Collections Research Center of the University of Chicago Library for permission to use Helga Chu’s letter from the Elizabeth H. Paepcke Papers, and to Avery B. Chumbley for his assistance in Hawaii.
Today is Hing’s birthday. His portrait of Helga is here. A painting by Helga, below, was on eBay.
Comic Book Marketplace
#109, December 2003
pages 33–37: “B-Littled Golden Age Titles” by Jon Berk
Men of Mystery
unpaginated; “The Mystery of the Green Turtle!” by Jeff Gelb
Superhero Comics of the Golden Age: The Illustrated History
Taylor Publishing, 1992
page 153: Blazing Comics
Chinese Historic Sites and Pioneer Families of Kauai
Tin-Yuke Char, Wai Jane Char
A Local History Project of the Hawaii Chinese History Center, 1980
page 134: Chu Kin and Chu Wai Families
Rocket’s Blast Comic Collector
#93, August 1972
page 42: “Blazing Comics” by Joe Stoner
• • •
1. World War I Military Registration Card, 31 Jul. 1918.
2-5. Thirteenth U.S. Federal Census, Hilo Town, Hawaii, 15 May 1910.
6-7. Chu Fook Ngu, Chinese Exclusion Act Case File 2029/43, National Archives and Records Administration-Great Lakes Region (Chicago, Illinois), 18 May 1920.
8. Emily Petzold, “Geography Has Changed Considerably Since Mother Was a Girl – Something of the New Kind”, Duluth News Tribune (Minnesota), 13 Oct. 1912: 4.
9. Chu Fook Ngu.
10. World War I Military Registration Card.
11. Chu Fook Ngu.
12. Passenger and Crew Lists of Vessels Arriving at Seattle, Washington, 1890-1957. Micropublication M1383. RG085. 357 rolls. National Archives, Washington, D.C., Microfilm Roll Number M1383_42.
13. Passenger and Crew Lists of Vessels Arriving at Seattle, Washington, 1890-1957. Microfilm Roll Number M1383_43.
14. Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at San Francisco, 1893-1953. Microfilm Publication M1410, 429 rolls. Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, RG 85; National Archives, Washington, D.C.; Microfilm Roll Number M1410_128.
15. Passenger and Crew Lists of Vessels Arriving at Seattle, Washington, 1890-1957. Micropublication M1383. RG085. 357 rolls. National Archives, Washington, D.C., Microfilm Roll Number M1383_52.
16-17. Chu Fook Hing, Chinese Exclusion Act Case File 36863/1-1, National Archives and Records Administration-Pacific Alaska Region (Seattle, Washington), 8 Oct. 1919.
18. Passenger and Crew Lists of Vessels Arriving at Seattle, Washington, 1890-1957. Micropublication M1383. RG085. 357 rolls. National Archives, Washington, D.C., Microfilm Roll Number M1383_43.
19. Chu Fook Ngu.
20. Fourteenth U.S. Federal Census, Chicago City, Cook County, Illinois; 8 Jan. 1920.
21. Porter Sargent, A Handbook of American Private Schools (Boston: Sargent's Handbooks, 1916) 228, <http://www.archive.org/stream/handbookofameric009486mbp#page/n231/mode/2up>.
22. James Parton Haney, Art Education in the Public Schools of the United States (New York: American Art Annual, 1908) 334, <http://books.google.com/books?id=oOpJAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA334&lpg=PA334&dq=%22chicago+academy+of+fine+arts%22&source=bl&ots=7mcC-WwofD&sig=M0lmE51OFNp6xMhEKjAgfbfPQgM&hl=en&ei=PIApS_m4BYvllQfUq5GZBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CBQQ6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&q=%22chicago%20academy%20of%20fine%20arts%22&f=false>.
23. Porter Sargent.
24. Walt Disney Timeline, The Walt Disney Family Museum; <http://www.waltdisney.org/sites/default/files/Walt%20Disney%20Timeline_0.pdf>.
25. Roy Crane, Wikipedia, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roy_Crane>.
26. Brian Kane, Hal Foster: Prince of Illustrators, Father of the Adventure Strip (New Jersey: Vanguard, 2002) 53.
27. P. C. Hamerlinck, Fawcett Companion: The Best of FCA (North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing, 2001) 135.
28. School of the Art Institute of Chicago, “SAIC History”, <http://www.saic.edu/about/historyandquickfacts/>.
29. Fifteenth U.S. Federal Census, Chicago City, Cook County, Illinois; 26 Apr. 1930.
30. Michigan Marriage Record, Ancestry.com
31. Social Security Death Index. Roots Web <http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=3693>, Genealogy Bank <http://www.genealogybank.com/gbnk/ssdi/?kbid=10435&m=9>.
32. Eleanor Jewett, “Graduation Marks Close of Splendid Year for Art School”, Chicago Tribune (Illinois), 17 Jun. 1922: 11.
33. Elizabeth H. Paepcke. Papers, Box #26, Folder #5, Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library, Helga Chu, 6 May 1966 letter.
34. Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at Honolulu, Hawaii, 1900-1953. Microfilm Publication A3422, 269 rolls. Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, Record Group 85; National Archives, Washington, D.C.; Microfilm Roll Number A3422, Roll 82.
35. Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at San Pedro/Wilmington/Los Angeles, California, June 29, 1907-June 30, 1948. Microfilm Publication M1764, 118 rolls. Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, Record Group 85; National Archives, Washington, D.C.; Microfilm Roll Number M1764:11.
36. Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at Honolulu, Hawaii, 1900-1953; Microfilm Roll Number A3422, Roll 95.
37. Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at San Francisco, 1893–1953; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M1410, 429 rolls); Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, RG 85; National Archives, Washington, D.C.; Microfilm Roll Number M1410_242.
38. Fifteenth U.S. Federal Census.
39. Elizabeth H. Paepcke.
40. Bruun Rasmussen Auctioneers, Copenhagen, Denmark, 8–14 Oct. 2012 <http://www.bruun-rasmussen.dk/search.do?iid=300494300&did=1003385&lang=en&mode=detail> ; Helga visited her sister, Ester, and gave Hing’s watercolors to her.
41. “Artist Wins Contest”, The New York Times, 13 July 1936.
42. Catalogue of the Thirty-Fourth Annual Water Color Exhibition and Thirty-Fifth Annual Exhibition of Miniatures (Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, 1936) 37, 42 and 57.
43. Catalogue of the Thirty-Fifth Annual Philadelphia Water Color Exhibition and the Thirty-Sixth Annual Exhibition of Miniatures (Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, 1937) 32.
44. Elizabeth H. Paepcke.
45. Passenger and Crew Lists of Vessels Arriving at New York, New York, 1897-1957; (National Archives Microfilm Publication T715, 8892 rolls); Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service; National Archives, Washington, D.C.; Microfilm serial: T715; Microfilm roll: T715_6333; Line: 3.
46. Elizabeth H. Paepcke.
47. Sixteenth U.S. Federal Census
47a. Draft Registration Card, Ancestry.com
48. Who’s Who in American Comic Books 1928-1999. <http://www.bailsprojects.com/(S(21da2a55zoftovz1nodptqnn))/whoswho.aspx?mode=AtoZsearch&id=CHU%2c+HING>.
49. Leonard Starr interview, “I Think I Worked for Every [Comics] House in the City”, Alter Ego, #110, June 2012: 6, 11–12.
50. Steve Duin, Mike Richardson, Comics Between the Panels (Dark Horse, 1998) 370.
51. Tom Orzechowski, “Spotlight on Bob Fujitani at SDCC”, 20 Jul. 2005 <http://www.comicon.com/ubb/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=352037>.
52. Joe Simon, The Comic Book Makers, (New Jersey: Vanguard, 2003) 57.
53. David Hajdu, The Ten-Cent Plague: The Great Comic-Book Scare and How It Changed America (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2008) 339, 341, 345, 350.
54. Ron Goulart, Comic Book Culture: An Illustrated History (Portland, OR: Collectors Press, 2000) 150.
55. United States Patent Office, 2,394,366, 5 Feb. 1946; Application 27 Jun 1944, Serial No. 542,384; city and state on first page.
56. Wikipedia, “Funnies Inc.”, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Funnies_Inc.>
57. Wikipedia, “Timely Comics”, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timely_Comics>
58. Catalogue of Copyright Entries, Part 1, Group 2, Pamphlets, etc.; New Series, Vol. 39, No. 8, (1942) 573.
59. Catalogue of Copyright Entries, Part 4, Works of Art, etc., New Series, Vol. 40, No. 1 (1945) 26. <https://archive.org/stream/catalogofcopyrig404libr#page/26/mode/2up/search/%22Viking+tailless+kite+co.%2C+Larchmont%22>
60. Catalogue of Copyright Entries, Part 4, Works of Art, etc., New Series, Vol. 40, No. 2 (1945) 29. <https://archive.org/stream/catalogofcopyrig404libr#page/28/mode/2up/search/%22Viking+tailless+kite+%26+toy+co%22>
61. Catalogue of Copyright Entries, Part 4, Works of Art, etc., New Series, Vol. 40, No. 7 (1945) 136. <http://books.google.com/books?id=hENhAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA136&lpg=PA136&dq=%22Zoo.+©+1+c.+Apr.+3,+1945;+G+45365%22&source=bl&ots=_nCx_avYMX&sig=LbGvy3YqfBLeM6lu2AyumOm7x88&hl=en&sa=X&ei=KxXXUsqZBZK_sQTM7YLoAw&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22Zoo.%20©%201%20c.%20Apr.%203%2C%201945%3B%20G%2045365%22&f=false>
62. Catalogue of Copyright Entries, Part 4, Works of Art, etc., New Series, Vol. 40, No. 8 (1945) 187. <http://books.google.com/books?id=hENhAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA187&dq=%22Chu%5D:+Circus.+©+1+c.+Aug.+2,+1945%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=i_XXUvnpM8vNsQTqtoLoAQ&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22Chu%5D%3A%20Circus.%20©%201%20c.%20Aug.%202%2C%201945%22&f=false>
63. Catalogue of Copyright Entries, Part 4, Works of Art, etc., New Series, Vol. 41 (1946) 21. <https://archive.org/stream/catalogofcopyrig414libr#page/20/mode/2up/search/%22Chu%2C+Hing+F.+Adventures+of+Marco+Polo%22>
64. Catalog of Copyright Entries, Part 1, Group 2, Pamphlets, etc., New Series, Vol. 43 (1946) 170. <https://archive.org/stream/catalogofcopyrig431libr#page/170/mode/2up/search/%22Chu%2C+Helga+M.%2C+1897-+Chinese+New+Year%22>
65. Catalog of Copyright Entries, Third Series, Vol. 1, Parts 7-11A, No. 2; Works of Art, etc. (Jul–Dec. 1947) 135.
66. Catalog of Copyright Entries, Third Series, Vol. 1, Parts 7–11A, No. 1, Works of Art, etc. (Jan.-Jun. 1949) 15. <https://archive.org/stream/catalogofcopyrig3311libr#page/14/mode/2up/search/%22chu+helga%22>
67. Catalog of Copyright Entries, Third Series, Vol. 1, Parts 7–11A, No. 1, Works of Art, etc. (Jan.-Jun. 1949) 146. <https://archive.org/stream/catalogofcopyrig3311libr#page/146/mode/2up/search/%22chu+helga%22>
68. United States Patent Office, 2,394,366, 5 Feb. 1946; Application 27 Jun 1944, Serial No. 542,384. <http://www.google.com/patents/US2394366>
69. United States Patent Office, 2,406,994, 3 Sep. 1946; Application 9 Oct 1944, Serial No. 557, 816. <http://www.freepatentsonline.com/2406994.html>
70. United States Patent Office, 2,412,322, 10 Dec. 1946; Application 17 May 1945, Serial No. 594,316. <http://www.freepatentsonline.com/2412322.html>
71. United States Patent Office, 2,412,321, 10 Dec. 1946; Application 8 Mar 1945, Serial No. 581,588. <http://www.google.com/patents/US2412321>
72. United States Patent Office, 2,461,465, 8 Feb. 1949; Application 14 Nov. 1947, Serial No. 785,992. <http://www.google.com/patents/US2461465>
73. Scandinavian Airlines Air Passenger Manifest, 8 Oct. 1951. Passenger and Crew Lists of Vessels Arriving at New York, New York, 1897-1957; (National Archives Microfilm Publication T715, 8892 rolls); Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service; National Archives, Washington, D.C.; Microfilm serial: T715; Microfilm roll: T715_8050; Line: 2.
74. Who’s Who of American Comic Books, 1928–1999.
75. Elizabeth H. Paepcke.
75a. Application for Certificate of Hawaiian Birth, Ancestry.com
76–79. Elizabeth H. Paepcke.
80–81. Social Security Death Index.